Sunday, August 7, 2016

Creative Writing #23 - Cain: An Alternative History

"What cannot be said will be wept" - Sappho

Cain: An Alternative History

His tunic, now dampened by the messy dew of the garden, clings to his chest as he stands in the dawn’s dingy light. The heavy, wet air rises in thick clouds, drowning the nighttime’s struggles in a layer of foggy solemnity.

Beat by beat, his burning heart returns to a steady pace and the primality of his tense body gives way to exhausted surrender—his skin glistening with sweat and sweet water, mixed with the crimson of his brother’s veins.

His head drops and his eyes meet the body at his feet: his brother’s face is finally stripped of helpless terror, its features shaped by that ironic peacefulness of death. As the man begins to drag the body through his garden, a sprouting of white lilies from the valley—Mary’s Tears—tumble from the murdered man’s limp hand and a gust of warm wind surges across the terrain.

The Earth begins to tremor—rocks splintering with screams. The heavens, moaning, fade into a penal darkness and the surrounding woodlands explode in hellish cacophony. Paralyzed by the Earth’s violent revolt, the man drops the body, his face turning as deathly white as his shepherd brother’s. A frigid fear overwhelming the heat of his murderous passion.

A foul stench saturates the air. The putrid smell of decay. His gardens—his life’s work, his offering. They are blackening, shriveling, rotting. A wailing rain passes over the valley and a large snake retreats from the scorched soil.

The Winds howl with holy anger, “Where is your brother?”

Shuddering, the man’s entire body collapses in prostrated repentance. Mute with sorrow, the killer weeps, his wordless sobs nonetheless crying: “I have sinned.”

Sunday, January 3, 2016

A Father and No Sons, Creative Writing #22

A father and no sons. Our daddy’s name will not be passed on.

Since the birth of the Occident, the lineage of a family has been handed down and inherited by its men. Each son, sickly or strong, is a link in a chain that gives order and hopefully honor to generations. It is a potent and persuading concept: to have a person as a marking for each stop in the journey of man’s blood throughout the ages. As if to tell Time, “look, we were here!”

We fear endings—there is often a profound sadness and emptiness in them. The end of a “name” is, to our world, like the dried and hardened tip of a broken flower. It is the fleshy and discolored remaining lump from a lost limb. It is the severed trunk of a tree—with its long and steady life laid out in intricate rings, but no sprout or twig from which it may continue its existence. It has a life to it and as with all living things, it too can die.

A name fastens us to this earth. In the beginning, God tasked Adam with the naming of the animals and we have faithfully continued this, now naming everything in Creation itself. By a name, we are both individuals and parts of a collective whole. Consider what it would feel like to be nameless—by choice and by nature. Would you still feel human?

But, my father does not mourn the loss of his name. No, he is oddly delighted in this particular kind of “end.” For to him, the loss was a gain—love took the place of blood. Where the phantom of his name might have nestled into the initials of my children and their children, a sacred abundance of love—with its smiling stories—will be present. He believes in passing on blessings, not names. And so, in this way, his love for us has redefined the very instinct that guides
the visceral man.

In fact, through this act of sacrificial love, his name—his lineage—has been transformed into more than simply a label. It has been reborn as something that transcends Time and elevates the human: a legacy, born from a love that detaches itself from this earth and the bounds of humanity’s weaknesses.

ἀγάπη μακροθυμεῖ. For love is long-suffering. It “bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.It is the one thing that remains standing when all else has fallen—even a name.

A father and two daughters and a legacy.

Saturday, August 15, 2015

The Elder of the Desert (an imitation of the epic poetic style of Beowulf)

The Elder of the Desert
An airy bone-beach engulfs the horizon
Fears of destruction drift like the dust 
Bare backs burn under a noon-day torch 
Wary, weak, and withered. 
An elder treads the gritty expanses 
Rocks trip while sand whirls 
A mile away a proud boy stands deserted 
Noble-figured, but frail 
His body contorts, limbs pull together 
In a sand-bowl—no wallet, no home. 
The elder egresses his tedious track 
From town to town his life’s mission 
Turning toward the dandy’s direction 
Sensing his present peril.
The sky-torch lowers its red-hot anger 
Creating fearful feigns of careless cacti 
The seasoned wisdom-giver found the boy 
Solid and stiff, mind-locked on despair 
He mourns his newfound loss: 
“What’s worth living if life isn’t easy? 
Why must half-hearts of people desert me?” 
The misshapen old man bent down: 
“Through adversity mercy is learned, 
Walk the narrow road, foot-trodden by few 
Find the Peace-giver and follow His lead” 
Heaven’s fireflies beamed in mysterious patterns 
A howl from the wolf on the rock 
The elder arose and the boy followed close 
Both wakefully walking, quietly strode 
Along a narrow road to peace.

I stumbled across this poem of mine last night while packing up my room. I was 13 and it was a writing assignment for my Medieval Lit. class. We had just finished reading the epic poem Beowulf and were studying the effects of kenning, simile/metaphor, intentional double-meanings, the technique of variation, parataxis, and alliterative verse in Nordic, Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon poetry. We were told to try our hand at this Old English-style form of poetry and the above was my feeble attempt at it. Years later, after becoming an Orthodox Christian, I look back on this poem and see my youthful longing for a “wisdom-giver,” like the elder described—a longing which would later be contented by the great monastic pillars of faith, the Desert Fathers, who were echoing in my heart long before I even knew who they were or why I needed them.

Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Thoreau on Dorms and College Tuition

I stumbled across this humorous piece of criticism while reading 
Henry David Thoreau's magnum opus, Walden... 
Would you agree with him? 

Thoreau on Dorms and College Tuition 

Context: After explaining in great detail how he built his own little hut by Walden Pond (for under $29) and arguing against the vanities of frivolous architecture, Thoreau weighs in on the benefits of "building" one's own education... 

"At Cambridge College the mere rent of a student’s room, which is only a little larger than my own, is thirty dollars each year, though the corporation had the advantage of building thirty-two side by side and under one roof, and the occupant suffers the inconvenience of many and noisy neighbors, and perhaps a residence in the fourth storey. 

I cannot but think that if we had more true wisdom in these respects, not only less education would be needed, because, forsooth, more would already have been acquired, but the pecuniary expense of getting an education would in a great measure vanish. 

Those conveniences which the student requires at Cambridge or elsewhere cost him or somebody else ten times as great a sacrifice of life as they would with proper management on both sides. Those things for which the most money is demanded are never the things which the student most wants. 

Tuition, for instance, is an important item in the term bill, while for the far more valuable education which he gets by associating with the most cultivated of his contemporaries no charge is made. The mode of founding a college is, commonly, to get up a subscription of dollars and cents, and then following blindly the principles of a division of labor to its extreme—a principle which should never be followed but with circumspection—to call in a contractor, who makes this a subject of speculation, and he employs Irishmen or other operatives actually to lay the foundations, while the students that are to be are said to be fitting themselves for it; and for these oversights successive generations have to pay. 

I think that it would be better than this, for the students, or those who desire to be benefited by it, even to lay the foundation themselves. The student who secures his coveted leisure and retirement by systematically shirking any labor necessary to man obtains but an ignoble and unprofitable leisure, defrauding himself of the experience which alone can make leisure fruitful."

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Social Media: Icon or Idol

My most recent paper from AP Lang/Comp. Constructive criticism is welcome! 

          There is a significant difference between a real painting and its reproduction on the web or in print. The “real thing” is more engaging than its flatter reprint, isn’t it? The same goes for letters of correspondence. In a world blessed with millisecond communications, a letter from a friend has a comforting warmth that a text message does not carry. You may be able to delete a conversation from your phone without a second thought, but ripping apart a handwritten letter seems nearly barbaric. Yet, as of 2013, the average Joe and plain Jane spent roughly 4-6 hours using social media during the day. The ATUS study from Bureau of Labor Statistics also showed that, between work, school, and other activities, the typical Joe and Jane spent less than two hours a day interacting with their loved ones. According to these numbers, the distant and digital person appears to be more interesting to the average man than the present and palpable one. What applies to the painting and the letter does not seem to apply as readily to people. Why? The answer rests in the nature of social media. Since it encourages an imaginative yet editable image of people rather than a flawed yet realistic one, it not only advocates for the normalcy of digital relationships, but in doing so, risks promoting superficial and unbounded ones.
1. Definition of Terms—
          Since the term “relationship” has an expansive range of meanings and implications, it is first necessary to define and delineate a “relationship” according to its health, strength and value. The Ancient Greeks, not surprisingly, had words such as “icon” and “idol” (εἰκόνος and εἴδωλον) to help describe the differences between a healthy and unhealthy relationship with a created thing. Understood as it was in Medieval Byzantium, an icon is an image, a thing, or a person which represents a real relationship. Like the painting and the letter, it has presence to it—an “umph.” A person’s relationship with an icon was, according to these Hellenic Christians, considered both symbiotic and reverential. Thus, a healthy relationship with someone is “iconic”—it is tangible, substantial, and complete. The word idol, on the other hand, is commonly translated as “phantom:” an image, a thing, or a person which is believed to have an actual presence, but is actually a deceiving mirage. It causes someone to think it is real and that he is connecting with it. Unlike like the icon but like a reproduction or text message, the Hellenic Christians understood the idol as an empty, potentially parasitic, and generally unhealthy relationship. 
          Malcolm Gladwell, an acclaimed author and speaker, wrote about another way to categorize relationships in his article, “Small Change: Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted.” He argues that relationships are different based on the strength of their “ties.” There are weak-tie relationships which are primarily logistical. They provide the summarized, easy-to-access, mini-bio information that allows people to form acquaintances and make efficient connections. A philanthropic campaign can be very successful on the Internet, he claims, because the Internet allows people to exploit “the power of these distant connections with marvelous efficiency.” In these abilities, the weak-tie relationships of social media find their strength. Strong-tie relationships, on the other hand, are much messier and much less efficient, but profoundly more deep and effective. They give the physical closeness, vulnerability, company, sincerity, and well-roundedness that allows people to become friends rather than just “friending” each other on Facebook. These relationships, Gladwell argues, are the kind that start revolutions because while they may take longer to form, their roots go much deeper. Few would deny that meeting their online friends in person is much more meaningful than simply messaging or Skyping them. In light of this, social media clearly falls under the “weak-tie” category, but is it an icon or an idol? In order to answer that question, it is first necessary to see the broad range of relationships social media affects and how it affects them. 

2. The Types of Relationships Social Media Affects—

          Human social networks are elaborately interconnected and one change, such as the use of social media, can have a ripple effect on every relationship in a person’s life—from his work to his wife. It begins with the most familiar and intimate human network: the family. According to Farah Stockman—a journalist for the Boston Globe, a Kenyan school teacher, and a Harvard graduate—there is a significant difference between being “lonely” and “alone.” In her Op-Ed article, “Lonely, or Just Alone?” she explains how company has become an unnecessary commodity in the days where “individuals can meet all their basic needs with one click on a computer.” When we want to know our heritage, she states, “we subscribe to” rather than spend “an afternoon with grandma.” We are no longer as reliant on our families, and thus, “less willing to make compromises to stay in their good graces.”
          Romantic relationships are equally affected. Nearly every modern couple uses social media to stay in touch, connect, or even show their affection for each other. According to the study “Couples, the Internet, and Social Media” conducted by PEW Research Center, 74% of adults claim the effect of social media on their relationships has been positive, while only 20% claim it has been negative. However, a little under 50% of every adult couple claims that their partner is or has been excessively distracted by social media. If nearly half of every couple experiences this unwanted distraction, then it can be assumed that many more have become either positively or negatively dependent on it—unable to separate their relationship from some aspect of social media.
          In non-family relationships, such as friendships or professional relationships, the effect is more subtle, but possibly more profound. In a video series where YouTubers Benny and Rafi Fine ask a panel of teens about certain issues, such as social media and smartphones, one responded about texting on her phone: “I just block out all my friends!” Then, when asked what most of them would do after the interview, they bashfully admitted they would “check their messages” before anything else. 
          In the professional world, any form of social privacy can be an illusion. David Williams, a writer for Forbes magazine, brings up the endless possibilities of the Deep Web in his article “How Much Is the Internet Really Telling Your Boss,” saying that “many young people are unaware of how easy it is for their parents, prospective employers, or even prospective dates to see everything they’ve posted.” With the Deep Web and even with public search engines, employers can not only scan through a prospective applicant’s social profiles, but find out whether he has “been arrested, filed for a bankruptcy, or been investigated by the SEC.” If someone is an employee, his “public self” does not return to his “private self” on social media—it is on 24/7. 
           Almost all of a person’s external, daily relationships are affected by social media, but his internal relationship with himself is also affected. In her TEDtalk “Connected, but alone?” Sherry Turkle discusses that we are setting ourselves up for “trouble in how we relate to ourselves and our ability for self-reflection.” She describes the internal life of the social media user as slowly growing lonelier as he or she becomes even more “plugged in.” Before, she says, it was “I have a feeling, I want to make a call” and now it is, “I want to have a feeling, I need to send a text.” The origin of social media’s involvement in daily life may seem to come from the outside, finagling its way into the human psyche. The opposite, however, is true. It is a battle from within—it always was. Social media does not dominate people’s lives—they allow it to do so. It is a willing surrender rather than an unavoidable effect.
3. The Spread of Weak-Ties and the Promotion of the Idol—

           Social media, by extending into every human relationship and appealing to the instinctual social desires of humans, has advocated for the normalcy of weak-ties. According to Dr. Ban Siegel from Business Insider’s “How Social Media Is Changing Our Brains and Reshaping Our Relationships,” there is a psychological reason for why social media is so appealing. He explains that the brain is the “social organ of the body” and “the reason social media took off is because the brain is social and people really want to connect with each other.” In his book,The Shallows, Nicholas Carr also argues that technology has shaped our brains and the metaphors we use to describe our lives. Our brains have become the machines they created, turning into “simple signal-processing units, quickly shepherding information into consciousness and then back out again” (119).  Similarly, as Dr. Siegel summarizes, the brain created social media and social media, in turn, shapes the brain.
            Like the industrial machine compared to the craftsman, social media is often more efficient than its nitty-gritty cousin: “face-to-face” conversation. There is no longer a need to go to the store. Everything can be purchased online through mega-warehouses like Amazon. The United States Postal Service is slowly being outdated by emails, e-cards, and online job and college applications, among many other things. With the exception of a few situations, there is rarely a need for a pen and paper if a computer is nearby. People often do not think twice about these minor lifestyle changes and when they do, they appreciate the newfound social efficiency. However, what they fail to realize is how deeply dependent they have become on the products of social media: the ability to create a customized “social self,” the luxury of hiding behind a digital wall, the control of not having to hold an organic conversation. In Sherry Turkle’s New York Times article “The Flight from Conversation,” she describes how social media, with its attractive efficiency and comfortable “distance,” has only fueled our internal desire for intimacy without risk or vulnerability. Technology is even taking on undeniably human jobs, such as therapy, in the form of “sociable robots.” Social media, she says, “provides so many automatic listeners,” but we “have sacrificed conversation for mere connection”—believed and accepted an illusion, an “idol,” as the real thing.
4. The Increasing Normalcy of Weak-Ties—
          Since these weak-ties are becoming increasingly more normal and habitual, relationships are, by consequence, becoming more superficial and unbounded. As Carr elaborates in The Shallows, a medium like social media affects our perception of value and our thought processes. Not surprisingly, it also affects how we relate to people. A neuroscientist who consulted with CBC’s The National told his interviewer that the areas in the brain which experience empathy and emotion “turn-off” when social media is being used. In addition, he affirms that technologies “are not activating these brain areas that are important for self-reflection and reflection on others.”  In essence, the positive social aspects of a person’s mental make-up are weakened when they attempt to use social media. Carr recounts how social media has made him function in new and unseen ways—almost as a merciless, emotionless machine (Ch. 1). Not surprisingly, neuroscience supports this as well. Social media, while more efficient and less risky, removes much of the humanity from social interaction. This is the “catch-22” paradox of social media’s effect on relationships—it provides people with less accountability and yet more liability; more connection and less communion; more socializing and less society.
          We are unknowingly forgetting the value of strong-ties as our minds and habits slowly, sometimes unconsciously, change. By habitually using technologies that support weak-ties, we are both changing and contradicting our instinctual need for real relationships—for strong ties. They are becoming museum pieces. The face-to-face conversation is not as welcome anymore. When Sherry Turkle asked people, "What's wrong with having a conversation?" they responded, “I'll tell you what's wrong with having a conversation! It takes place in real time and you can't control what you're going to say.” People still interact with each other every day—teachers, family members, bosses. They cannot avoid physical contact and connection, but is such a relationship becoming more of an anomaly than digital contact and connection? One teenager, when asked what she would do without her phone said, “I wouldn’t know how to talk to people.” Social media naturally fosters different types of communication styles than the ones which real-time conversations foster. It gives the speaker a filter and a barrier of time, control, and perception, whereas face-to-face conversation is more immediate, more telling, and requires more work from the speaker. In a world where Joe and Jane spend up to six hours on social media and less than two hours physically interacting with people, it seems like the media style of communication will naturally overthrow the real one, the present one. It seems that people no longer attach the same value to strong-ties. Or, if they do attach same value, then they have over-valued weak-ties. They have favored the phantom over the person—the idol over the icon.
5. Methods for Countering An Influx of Weak-Ties and Supporting the Icon—
          The problem may seem immense, but the solution is simple. When the weak-ties of social media overpower strong-tie relationships, when the phantom seems more appealing than the real person, then a person must examine his private life. Being more self-aware, he must become the controller and not the controlled. As Dr. Siegel revealed, every part of the brain and body wants to be social, but what “kind” of social will you let it be? What kinds of relationships do you value—iconic ones or illusions of them? As Turkle encourages: be willing to hold conversation about the topic, understanding the nature of technology as a tool rather than a creature—as separate from the human essence. With this understanding, the use of technology should be tailored to specific circumstances—need versus desire, chastity versus gluttony, and vulnerability versus feigned intimacy. And lastly, the scales require balancing. An idol and phantom reveals the “what” of a person—his external nature; the first layer of his personhood. By its nature, social media often only presents a person as an idol—a shell of what he really is. To be able to see that same person as an “icon”—to understand him for “who” he is in the deepest and most intimate sense—requires the characteristics of a strong-tie relationship: vulnerability, physical closeness, and real conversation. It is the discipline, moderation, veneration, and respect for the human soul which makes a relationship “iconic.”  The “what” cannot become more important than the “who,” the weak-tie more prevalent than the strong-tie, and the idol more preferred to the icon.
6. Conclusion—
          The invention of social media is, by no means, a bad thing—it is a neutral tool bereft of moral value. However, it still has the ability to mold and influence the human psyche, and thus, the nature of human relationships. As an efficient facilitator of “weak-ties,” social media can certainly broaden the horizons of a person’s social life, while simultaneously decreasing his interaction with society as his relationships become less and less “iconic.” The mind, in its desire to be social, oftentimes cannot distinguish between the phantom “what” of a person and his iconic “who” and with that, comes the widespread and constant use of social media. However, with this delightful new phenomenon of expansive networks and instantaneous connections, it is important to understand how gravely social media can damage real human relationships if not used with discretion or awareness. Media, while not the culprit, must still be balanced by the introspection of oneself—a balance which leads to healthy, strong, and iconic relationships without destroying valuable weak-tie relationships. For as R.W. Emerson once pointed out, the “reason why the world lacks unity”—the reason, in this case, that social media has come to be a more negative than positive influence on our relationships—“is, because man is disunited with himself.” To better unite with others, unite with yourself. This is the key to social media.
Works Cited
Aristotle. "Metaphysics." Introduction to Aristotle. Ed. Richard McKeon. New York: Modern Library, 1947. N. 237-96. Print. 
"Charts from the American Time Use Survey." United States Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <>
Carr, Nicholas G. The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains. New York: W.W. Norton, 2010. Print. 
Damascene, St. John. Three Treaties on the Divine Images. Trans. Andrew Louth. Ed. John Behr. Crestwood: St. Vladimir's Seminary, 2003. Print. Popular Patristics.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. "Nature." The Complete Works. Ed. Edward Emerson. Vol. 1. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1904. Print.
Gladwell, Malcolm. "Small Change: Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted.” The New Yorker. Conde Nast, 4 Oct. 2010. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <>
How Social Media Is Affecting Teens. The National. CBC/Radio-Canada, 24 Feb. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <>.
How Social Media Is Changing Our Brains And Reshaping Our Relationships. Prod. Justin Gmoser. Business Insider. MongoDB, 24 Dec. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <>.
Lenhart, Amanda. "Couples, the Internet, and Social Media." PewResearchCenter. Pew Research Center, 11 Feb. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <>
Stockman, Farah. "Nursing Home Holiday — Lonely or Just Alone?" Editorial. Boston Globe. Boston Globe Media Partners, 30 Dec. 2014. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. < alone/ighuLiUS2WiyuymnLx1adN/story.html>
Turkle, Sherry. "The Flight from Conversation." Editorial. New York Times. New York Times Company, 21 Apr. 2012. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <>
Turkle, Sherry. "Connected, but Alone?" TED2012. Feb. 2012. TED. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <>
Thayer, Joseph. "εἴδωλον." Def. 1497. Thayer's Greek Lexicon. BibleSoft, 2011. Bible Hub. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <> 
Thayer, Joseph. "εἰκών." Def. 1504. Thayer's Greek Lexicon. BibleSoft, 2011. BibleHub. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <>
Williams, David. "How Much Is The Internet Really Telling Your Boss?" Forbes., 12 Sept. 2012. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <>

Thursday, February 5, 2015

Creative Writing #21, The Concert and the Radio

Can the same sound have different sounds?

The band settles itself on the stage and the tuning begins—isolated sounds erupt into the air. The clarinet and oboe murmur some sultry tones as the trumpet blares briefly. The string instruments lazily harmonize and I fumble with my dress, pulling the black satin back over my stockingless knees. I tuck a stray hair behind my ear and flip through the program, trying to appear as sophisticated as the blasé crowd surrounding me. The music prepares itself. I prepare myself. Silence drops on the lounge and I glance up. Now, we are both ready. 

No niceties, no introductions. The music begins immediately and Bublé opens the night with Sinatra’s “Learning The Blues.” The brass—sassy and rhythmic. Somehow my heartbeat echoes its uneven staccatos. The piano—edgy and sparkling. My fingers dance on my knee, searching for the chords. The percussion—faithful and familiar. I don’t notice my left foot freely following along. Particles of sound touch everything. They are palpable, tangible. For once, melody materializes and tone actualizes. Sound takes on shape and density. It can be felt and heard. Each pitch hits me differently; each note takes on a distinct color. Puffs of it roll through the room, waves of it tumble across chairs, and streams of it rush over our limbs. The dandelion blare of the trumpet, the purple bop of the drum, the blush throb of the violin and the cobalt ding of the piano. 


The old truck rumbles along the gravel and I fiddle the rusty knobs on the radio, searching for something other than the newsThere, finally—the jazz station. Grandpa refuses to fix the car. It’s too much of a “classic.” Midnight is fast approaching, but he needs a screwdriver from the Walmart ten miles down the road and “no time is better than now.” The radio static fades into “Learning The Blues.” My thumbs tap the steering-wheel rhythmically and I stare blankly at the blackness in front of me. A deer. I brake rapidly and my messy bun falls out and over my face. The trumpet squeals at this point and I sigh, fixing my hair as Bublé sings about “the nights when you don't sleep. . .” Gazing at the boxy mechanism emanating jazz music, I realize that the wavelengths have no effect. They are distant. They are the same. No colors, no textures. They are grey and lifeless--the sound coming out in even chunks rather than boisterous surges. Sameness in each consecutive melody, tone, note. It pleases the ear, but it does not captivate the soul. The song on the radio is only an echo of something past—a song already sung. It is the ghost of music and the afterlife of the musician. Bublé tells me “those blues” will haunt my memory. I smile knowingly and switch the radio off, content to listen to the soprano choir of cicadas, the tenor voice of the cool summer wind, and the percussion of the uneven gravel beneath me. 

Monday, November 24, 2014

The Church Fathers and 1984

The Church Fathers and 1984 

I finally read Orwell’s famous 1984 this semester for AP Lang/Comp. Although I did not find it particularly appealing, I cannot deny the genius of its author. Woven into the delicate paradoxes of the story are countless political, philosophical, ethical, relational, linguistic and metaphysical questions. . . .

Very early on in the novel, I encountered the Party’s official and incredibly paradoxical slogan inscribed on the white walls of the Ministry of Truth (minitru):

War is Peace
Freedom is Slavery
Ignorance is Strength

Up until this semester, my knowledge of 1984 was peripheral and limited. I came to it without any expectations or any preconceived notions. When I read the first maxim in this slogan (War is Peace), my initial “connection” was not one which associated the Party with our modern government or with another dystopian reality. Instead, I associated it with the writings of the early Church and Desert Fathers on passions and sin. In all honesty, evil totalitarian slogans and the writings of the Church Fathers do not even belong in the same sentence, but let me explain myself. . . .  

“Conflict is Control”

However, before I do that, let me give some context to the phrase, "War is Peace. . . ."

To begin, the maxim, “War is Peace,” has quite a few interpretations. In one sense, it can be interpreted to mean that constant external strife creates internal stability. War with something “outside” of a country inevitably creates unity within a country. In another sense, it can be interpreted to mean that people are united under a common enemy. The Party creates a sense of “revolution” to purge the old world and to usher in and establish the dynasty of Big Brother. The society’s common enemy is ideological: anything other than what Big Brother permits. Although it seems contradictory, this constant state of social turmoil becomes the social norm. The people define normality and stability—or “peace”—as continuous conflict. Lastly, Oceania (Europe) is always at war, so those born during the days of Big Brother do not remember a time without war. In essence, their idea of peace is equivalent with warfare. The two words take on the same semantic meaning. Warfare means normality and normality means peace. 

However, in all of these cases, “war” or “conflict” is a means of manipulative control. To accept this paradox of “War is Peace” is to accept the idea that war and peace are interdependent and inseparable. With war, comes peace and where peace is achieved, war has taken place or is taking place. In the context of 1984, the maxim “War is Peace” is more honestly translated as “Conflict is Control.”

“Struggle is Salvation”

Now, I immediately thought of the Church Fathers when I read the words “War is Peace” because of their many teachings on the relationship between spiritual struggle and joy. In a way, they also believe that a kind of external strife creates internal stability. Many of them speak of how to achieve peace by warring with the passions—with sin. According to them, a man does not achieve peace only after warring with his passions, but he achieves peace and joy while warring with them.

St. John of Kronstadt says to “fight against them [the passions] valiantly and vigilantly unto your last breath, looking upon them as dreams of your imagination, as illusions of the spirits of evil.” 

Here, St. John establishes that we do, indeed, “war” against our passions. 

St. Anatoly of Optina writes: “Are you fighting against your passions? Fight, fight, and be good soldiers of Christ! Do not give in to evil and do not be carried away by the weakness of the flesh. During the time of temptation, flee to the Physician, crying out with the Holy Church, our mother: “O God, number me with the thief, the harlot, and the publican (i.e., with the repentant), and save me!”

Here, St. Anatoly also affirms that our interaction with sin should be one of struggle, wrestling, prayer and valiant spiritual effort. 

James 1:2-4 also says, “Count it all joy, my brothers, when you meet trials of various kinds, for you know that the testing of your faith produces steadfastness. And let steadfastness have its full effect, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking in nothing.”

Here, James, the brother of Jesus, concludes that trials and tests—the “wars” against sin—are indeed profitable. That they are meant to bring completeness and perfection. 

As the Party does in 1984, the Church Fathers also believe that “War is Peace.” However, what differentiates the two from each other is their understanding of war, of peace, and of humanity. With Big Brother's totalitarian government, war is unpleasant and unavoidable conflict, peace is stability and control, and humanity is without hope or goodness or consciousness. In the writings of the Church Fathers, war with sin is also an unpleasant and unavoidable conflict, but peace is freedom from passions and humanity has hope and the ability to wage a war which can, with God’s grace, be won.